chapter 9 practice test essay

Professor Pegler’s research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences the way people assess financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
cognitive psychology
Eva had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her fish:
prototype
A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of:
an algorithm.
As he attempted to spell the word receive, Tim reminded himself “i before e except after c.” Tim’s self-reminder best illustrates the use of:
heuristic
Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano’s surveillance strategy best illustrates:
confirmation bias.
he inability to see a problem from a new perspective is called:
fixation
Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it’s easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of:
the availability heuristic.
Underestimating the time and cost necessary to complete a project best demonstrates:
the planning fallacy.
People with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates
belief perseverance.
Although intuition can at times hinder rationality, it is often adaptive because it facilitates
quick decisions.
A person who can imagine many alternative uses of a paper clip best illustrates:
divergent thinking.
The word rats contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s).
4; 2
Noam Chomsky suggested that all human languages share a(n):
universal grammar
B. F. Skinner emphasized the importance of _________ in language acquisition
imitation and reinforcement
Four-month-old Piper makes a series of repetitive consonant-vowel sounds such as ba ba ba ba. This best illustrates:
babbling.
After Miguel’s recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca’s area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty:
speaking fluently.
Research on the language capabilities of apes clearly demonstrates that they have the capacity to:
communicate through the use of symbols.
Bilingual people, who inhibit one language while using the other, can better inhibit their attention to irrelevant information. This has been called:
the bilingual advantage.
Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is a(n):
mental ability to learn from experience.
Those who define intelligence as academic aptitude are most likely to criticize:
Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligences.
Andrew is no smarter than his graduate school classmates, but his self-discipline and passionate dedication to long workdays resulted in notably superior academic accomplishments. Andrew’s unusual level of success best illustrates the importance of:
grit.
Gardner’s concept of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is most likely to be criticized for
extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of skills or talents.
Aptitude tests are to ________ as achievement tests are to ________.
future performance; current competence
The eugenics movement would have been most likely to encourage:
selective breeding of highly intelligent people
Instead of calculating an intelligence quotient, most current intelligence tests represent the test-taker’s performance relative to the:
average performance of others the same age as the test-taker.
If a test is standardized, this means that:
a person’s test performance can be compared with that of a representative pretested group.
A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ________ level of reliability and a ________ level of validity.
high; low
The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________.
fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence
the restandardization of intelligence tests over the past decade renders ________ Americans eligible for special education and ________ Americans eligible for the death penalty.
more; fewer
Professor McKenzie’s research suggests that approximately 30 percent of the variation in SAT scores among a large group of high school students can be attributed to genetic differences among the students. The 30-percent figure represents an assessment of:
heritability.
Intelligence tests are “biased” in the sense that:
test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.
Tahir teaches ninth-grade science classes in a high school located in an economically deprived area of a large city. He stresses to his students that the brain is like a muscle; it grows stronger with use as neuron connections grow. He praises effort rather than ability. Tahir is trying to help his students through fostering:
a growth mind-set.
After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira’s experience best illustrates:
insight.

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