I’m working on a social science discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.Discussion: Helping Clients Make Informed DecisionsAccording to the ACA Code of Ethics, the “primary responsibility of counselors is to respect the dignity and to promote the welfare of clients” (Standard A.1.a). Helping professionals also should be “aware of their own values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors and avoid imposing values that are inconsistent with counseling goals” (Standard A.4.b). Keeping both points in mind, helping professionals must sometimes help clients make informed decisions about behavior that is harmful to themselves and, potentially, others. Whether or not to use contraception is one potential area related to sexuality counseling for which helping professionals may need to inform clients about potential risk.Consider the following case study:You are a helping professional working in a college counseling center. You just completed your intake evaluation session with Josiah, a 20-year-old sophomore. Josiah was mandated to attend six counseling sessions after he received a citation from the campus police for underage drinking at a party sponsored by the fraternity to which Josiah belongs.During the intake session, Josiah was very verbal and willing to share information about his background and current experiences. He shared with you that he frequently drinks six to eight beers or other alcoholic beverages at a time, typically every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday when he “parties” with friends. He described this as normal behavior among his peer group, saying that this is “just how we unwind from all the stress of school every week.”When you asked Josiah about his relationships and sexual behaviors, he stated that he has not had a steady partner since high school, saying, “People here just aren’t into long-term relationships.” He admitted that he typically “hooks up” with at least one or two partners each weekend, and when you asked him what he meant by that, he said, “Sex.” You asked if he uses any contraception in these sexual encounters, and he said, “No, I don’t like how they feel, so I won’t have sex if the other person would make me use one.”You asked Josiah what his goals are for counseling and what he would like to change, and he responded, “Not much really. I like my life and have fun with all the partying we do here. I guess I need to learn to be a little more careful with my drinking since I got that police citation, but otherwise I feel really happy with my life right now and can’t think of much that I really want to work on in counseling.”By Day 4Post by Day 4 an explanation of how you, as a helping professional, might help this student make positive, informed sexual decisions. Describe one specific strategy you might use or one example conversation you might have with him (in the form of a short dialogue) to help him change his sexual behavior. Explain why the strategy or conversation you described might be effective.Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the resources.By Day 6Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.Respond by Day 6 to at least two of your colleagues’ postings, sharing and supporting an opinion on their chosen strategy.Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of your colleagues’ comments.Colleague 1: Tyrus According to Lechner et al. (2013), “College-aged youth are at increased risk of negative outcomes related to sexual health compared to the rest of the population.” Talking about sex can be uncomfortable for some people, but knowing how to deliver the necessary information is what’s important. In the case of Josiah, he feels like his life is ok and that his only problem seems to be drinking since he got a citation. When asked about his sexual behavior, he stated that, “He hooks up often and doesn’t wear protection because he doesn’t like how they feel.” People at this life stage lack accountability and responsibility when it comes to a person’s sexual health and decision making (Lechner, et al., 2013). In order to get him to make informed positive sexual decisions,I would give Josiah a pamphlet on risky sexual behaviors and follow up with questions regarding any STI’s that he’s familiar and unfamiliar with. I would also engage in a conversation as to why he feels like he has to have “Sex” so often. Showing him a video with real testimonies of people who made poor sexual health decisions and how it affected their lives could be another way for Josiah to make better decisions regarding his sex life. Lastly, I would provide him with a list of sexual health resources on or near his college campus.A strategy that can be used to help Josiah make positive decisions regarding his sexual behavior would be to invite him to a group session that includes icebreakers with topics such as “What is sex?”,and showing them various appropriate movie clips that include sexual communication and detecting sexual intentions. After the movie clip, there could be a focus group discussion regarding parts of the video to get them to open up. I would ask them questions like, “How has the communication of sex changed from then to now?” Or I could ask, “How has social media influenced sexual communication?” These types of questions will open up a conversation that most college students might be uncomfortable talking about with their parents. Josiah might be moved to make better decisions based on his experience within the group and this might give him the knowledge that he lacks in the area of consequences of risky sexual behaviors. This strategy gives participants like Josiah a voice, allows discussion, and provides a sense of agreement/disagreement among participants within a safe a environment.Lechner, K. E., Garcia, C. M., Frerich, E. A., Lust, K., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2013). College students’ sexual health: personal responsibility or the responsibility of the college?. Journal of American college health : J of ACH, 61(1), 28–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2012.750608Colleague 2: Stephanie Analysis of a Strategy to Change the Clients Sexual Behavior As a social working with clients, the primary responsibility is to promote clients’ well-being (NASW, 2017). In this week’s case study Josiah, a 20-year-old college student, has been cited for underage drinking and mandated to attend counseling sessions. Josiah has also disclosed he hooks up with one to two partners each weekend and does not use contraceptives. Josiah states his only problem is needing to be more careful with drinking because it has gotten him in trouble. Social workers adhering to the NASW Code of Ethics self-determination is a key ethical standard. Social workers respect and promote clients’ right to self-determination and assist clients in their efforts to identify and clarify goals (NASW, 2017, 1.02 section). Therefore, the social worker must be careful not to impose their own bias when working with this client. Josiah does not see his sexual behavior as a problem, so I would suggest going over the risk of underage drinking at these fraternity parties and incorporate sexual behavior, using psychoeducation as the strategy to change behavior. The conversation can begin by asking Josiah how he is protecting himself from STDs with no contraceptives when choosing various partners each weekend. Both sexual activity and multiple partners have been studied as associated with measures of substance use (Sleap et al., 2012). Next, explore why Josiah needs to hook up with various people each weekend with excessive drinking. Josiah did state he is part of a fraternity. College students in sororities and fraternities often perceive that risky behavior is a normal part of Greek life (Sleap et al., 2012). Educating Josiah on the risk of STD transmission and the purpose of condoms extends past preventing pregnancy is also a point of focus. Also, helping Josiah understand alcohol may be the force creating a false illusion of a desire to participate in risky behavior. Alcohol myopia theory provides a link between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior, contending that alcohol’s pharmacological effects alter one’s ability to process information and thereby disinhibit behavior (Sleap et al., 2012). When a person drinks alcohol, the individual processes basic biological cues such as sexual arousal but cannot process complex concepts such as the possibility of contracting diseases from sexual behaviors (Sleap et al., 2012). Evidence suggests that drinking in a potentially sexual situation increases the probability of sexual intercourse while decreasing the chance that risk discussions will occur (Sleap et al., 2012). Using a psychoeducation approach will educate Josiah of the risk of continued excessive underage drinking and a link to risky sexual behaviors. Education will provide Josiah with accurate knowledge and self-efficacy to create his own desired experiences and preventing unwanted ones.ReferencesNASW. (2017, August 4). Highlighted Revisions to the Code of Ethics. NASW – National Association of Social Workers. https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Highlighted-Revisions-to-the-Code-of-EthicsSleap, N., Heflin, A., Archuleta, A. J., & Cook, W. P. (2012, June 19). Organizing Community Change: STD/HIV Awareness in a Greek Student Body. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship. http://jces.ua.edu/organizing-community-change-stdhiv-awareness-in-a-greek-student-body/
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