CHAPTER 1 Questions
PLEASE COPY THE QUESTION (into your own MICROSOFT WORD DOC) AND THEN PUT YOUR ANSWER BELOW IT… You’ll turn in this word-doc, via the Canvas …. Thanks.
One of the most important topics in chapter one has to do with “What is geology?” and “What is science?”.
1) Perhaps you remember learning about the “scientific method” in elementary school or in high school. It had to do with things like observing, hypothesizing, testing, and repeating the whole process over and over again.
Use GOOGLE (or another search tool), or a science textbook, to find information on the “Scientific Method.” You may very well find some sort of flow chart or algorithm, but at the very least, you’ll probably encounter some sort of step-by-step cookbook-like system that involves the aspects listed above.
Write down the steps of “scientific method.”
2) OK, here’s a tough question!
Gather some information on a couple of THEORIES that are represent “revolutions” in scientific thinking. Try to find a bit of history behind these theories. (Examples: special or general relativity, heliocentric cosmology, quantum physics, plate tectonics, evolution, big bang cosmology, etc etc)
I am NOT convinced that the simplified, flow-chart-like version of the “scientific method” adequately explains such revolutionary ideas.
What do you think?? Did the people who came up with these revolutionary theories use something that we don’t find in the standard presenation of scientific method??
3) Basic earth structure is often described as core, mantle, and crust. Which of these makes up the bulk of our planet? Briefly describe the composition of each of these layers.
4) What are the two primary kinds of crust on planet earth?
5) Are the words lithosphere and asthenosphere simply synonyms for crust and mantle? Why or why not?
6) Try searching the NASA-JPL site for pictures of planets in our solar system. Which planets are most similar to earth? What other worlds might contain substantial water? (Is water on these worlds solid, liquid, or gas?) If you google NASA, you’ll find many options, but you might try: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/solar_system/ (Links to an external site.)
CHAPTER 2: Questions
1) Your textbook has a diagram of the “rock cycle.”
It indicates that sedimentary rocks turn into metamorphic rocks, which in turn change into igneous rocks, which are then eroded to make sedimentary rocks. It works in a counter-clockwise pattern, in your textbook figure.
Does the “rock cycle” really operate in any ONE particular direction? Yes, No? EXPLAIN (no credit if you do not explain!)–
2) Got any breakfast cereal in your cupboard? Most cereals list “vitamins and minerals” in their ingredients. Do these minerals fit the geologic definition of the word? Explain.
3) Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of two features-grain size (e.g. intrusive or extrusive) and what else? Hint: What do we mean by felsic or mafic?
4) Near your home is most likely a stream or an old stream terrace. Go there and look at the local rocks. Describe one of these rocks in as much detail as you can. Describe:
a) Color? One color or multiple colors? b) Visible grains (i.e. particles or pieces) or not? How many types of grains (if visible to naked eye)? c) Layering or striations? How wide or thick are the layers? d) Internal cracks or fractures? e) Finally, what is your best guess as to the general origin of the rock–igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic? Why did you make that choice?
CHAPTER 3: Questions
1) Find a map (web-search or library) and determine the distance between the eastern margin of North America , say, New York City , and the western margin of Africa , say Senegal or Sierra Leone.
The distance is? ______________miles. Convert distance to kilometers (there are 1.6 km for every mile) ____________
Convert distance to centimeters (there are 105 cm for every kilometer) _____________
Now, use the figure in chapter 3 (depending on edition of your text Fig. 3.10 or 3.11 or 3.12), to determine the oldest ocean crust that sits against eastern U.S. and west Africa.
This “oldest” crust is ____________million years old.
OK, now divide DISTANCE in centimeters by TIME in years, in order to get a separation rate in cm/year.
Your answer is? ___________.
What is this rate most similar to?? (pick one of the following):
a) rate at which ants crawl
b) rate at which typical finger nails grow
c) rate at which the earth turns, on the equator
2) How does the age of ocean crust compare with the average age of continental crust?
Another way to think of this questions – Where would you have to go in order to find the oldest rocks on planet earth?
3) Plate boundaries near where you live – answer the following:
What town and state do you live in? Where is the nearest plate boundary? What type of boundary is it? Where would be the nearest DIFFERENT kind of plate boundary and where is it?
4) When oceanic and continental lithosphere meet at a plate tectonic convergence zone, which will subduct? Explain why this is the case.
5) Understanding “magnetic field reversals” was very important to learning that oceanic crust is formed at mid ocean ridges, then moves outwards. Where does the earth’s magnetic originate and how often does it undergo “reversal.”
NOTE: After you send in this assignment (as an attachment Canvas), you MUST wait for it to be returned before you can send in the next assignment.
This is the protocol for ALL assignments; however, you CAN take the exams whenever you like.
Of course, the wise student will wait till assignments 1,2 are returned before taking Exam 1 AND will wait till assignments 3,4 are returned before taking Exam 2, etc!