paraphrase answer that corresponds with its question make sure its is not the same as the original.
Part I. After reading answer the following:
- Identify the benefits of leaving the remains of the previous year’s crops in the field to overwinter.
- a. Leaving the remains of the previous year’s crops in the field to overwinter allows for the decayed organic matter (humus) to supply nutrients to plants. The acidity of the decomposition will help minerals be released from rock, and the essential nutrients that come from the decomposition of remains helps detritivores recycle nutrients and form new ones through such a process.
- Explain how cation exchange works.
- Cation exchange happens when hydrogen ions and other positive ions alternate places with positive mineral ions. Then, the root will take the nutrient, and such an exchange will result in healthier soil content.
- List the essential inorganic nutrients in plants, their symbol, form, and major functions using Table 25.1 on p. 457.
- The essential inorganic nutrients in plants are Carbon (C) (CO2), Hydrogen (H) (H2O), Oxygen (O) (O2), Phosphorus (P) (H2PO4-, HPO42-), Potassium (K) (K+), Nitrogen (N) (NO3-) (HN4+), Sulphur (S) (SO42-), Calcium (Ca) (Ca2+), and Magnesium (Mg) (Mg2+). These are the macronutrients. The micronutrients include iron (Fe) (Fe2+), boron (B) (BO33-), manganese (Mn) (Mn2+), copper (Cu)(Cu2+), zinc (Zn) (Zn2+), chlorine(Cl)(Cl-), and molybdenum (Mo)(MoO4 2-).
- The symbol and form in which the element is absorbed is listed in the set of parenthesis, respectively. Some of the major functions include silicon helping horsetails grow, sodium helping sugar beets grow, nickel helping soybeans, aluminum helping ferns, and selenium helping the success of canola plants. The essential nutrients have to have identifiable roles, not be substituted by any other nutrient, and play a role that if disrupted due to deficiency, the plant will die.
- Explain the role of the endodermis and Casparian stirp in concentrating minerals in a plant.
- The water and dissolved minerals will have to enter the plant’s root, and the Casparian strip and endodermis are vital. The water will go through cells, diffuse the the cell walls’ pores, and then get stopped by the Casparian strip. The strip is around the endodermis, where water has to go through the plasma membrane to enter any endodermal cells. Osmotic pressure is vital to concentrating minerals in a plant.
- Describe the significance to plants of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil.
- The bacterial nitrogen fixation helps convert nitrogen from the air. This usually happens in the soil, since bacteria lives there mostly, but the bacteria can live inside the host (the plant). The plant will give a habitat, while the bacteria offers nitrogen needed by the plant to thrive.
- Describe how water flows upward against gravity.
- Water can flow upward against gravity due to the root pressure. The pressure differences can cause the water to move upward, and in the cohesion tension model, water and minerals can travel upwards. The higher water potential in the soil causes the water to move into the roots and upwards through the root pressure. Transpiration can happen when water moves upward entirely, since a chain of water molecules can move up, due to their polar nature. The cohesion and adhesion creates tension during evaporation, and transpiration will pull the water column from the upper areas because of evaporation.
- Identify the cohesion and adhesion properties of water that pertain to water transport.
- The cohesion properties include the ability for water to stay connected in a chain. The adhesion allows for the water to stay inside of the xylem vessel. These are vital to allowing transpiration to happen as the water column is pulled from the top because of evaporation.
- Define the process in which sugars move from source to sink in a plant.
- As photosynthesis creates sugar, the source (origin) of sugar helps it to be transported from leaf mesophyll cells to the sieve tubes of the phloem. The sugar will be loaded by active transport, then pumped through a proton pump on an electrochemical gradient along with hydrogen ions. The high concentration of sugar will help water flow, and the sugar, due to the pressure from the source, is forced to move to lower pressure areas of the sink (unloading region of sugars).
Part III: Because plants were one of the first organisms on the planet, they had to develop some fairly specialized methods of survival. Read the section on p. 438 Big Idea 1: “Survival Mechanisms of Plants” to find out why and answer the following:
- Which plant defense mechanisms would be the most effective against large predator? Small predators?
- a. The defense mechanisms that would be most effective against large predators would be thorns and spines. The bigger herbivores would not want to eat those, since it would become painful. For small predators, however, this is not very effective. Instead, the response that harms them the most could be the production of toxins or sticky secretions.
- How would the suppression of fires in a chaparral region impact the plant diversity?
- This could prevent the germination of seeds that is normally caused by a traumatic event. In chaparral areas, these plants will only germinate if they have been burned a little bit, letting them spread their seeds in an area that does not have as much competition for the same resources. The chaparral region might not have as much chaparrals growing or many plants in those regions, since they may not germinate without fires.